As the advancement of the technology in todays world, most people are interested in gaining technological knowledge. Having a good technical knowledge for a man can lead to the good and bad direction. It means a people who developed a system for a man kind and another people is hacked that system for their individual benefits. Because in modern world, data or information is the most valuable assets that people are looking for. In case of that most of hackers are trying to hack the systems and get the data. So, hacking is a major problem for the information systems and DNS spoofing is a method that hackers redirect the users to malicious websites to get information. Therefore this article is discussed about how the DNS system works, what is DNS spoofing and how we can face to this problem.
DNS spoofing, also referred to as DNS cache poisoning, is a form of computer security hacking in which corrupt Domain Name System data is introduced into the DNS resolver’s cache, causing the name server to return an incorrect result record, e.g. an IP address. This results in traffic being diverted to the attacker’s computer or any other computer — Wikipedia
DNS Communication Process
Above diagram visualize general process of DNS server. What it does is mapping the correct IP address for the domain name requested by the client. At the time a DNS found the IP address, it send to the client and then data transferring process is begin. Every DNS servers in the world has connected with each others. In case of that if suitable IP address is not available in the immediate DNS server, then it will check for its parent DNS server as network. However they find the particular IP address , then they cache them and in the next subsequent requests coming for the same domain name, they work faster rather than in first time. As this is the general process DNS spoofing also can take place, when false DNS can be injected into the cache of the DNS’s server and alter the visitor destination to their malware websites.
Now let’s we talk about the DNS Spoofing. There are basic three methods to carry out the DNS spoofing. They are:
- DNS cache poisoning
- Compromising a DNS server
- Implementing a man-in-the-middle attack
In this article we are going to discuss about the DNS cache poisoning method. No matter whatever method that they used, end goal is same. It could be stealing information, redirect internet users to their personal benefits web sites, or spreading malware.
As I mentioned in previous sections DNS cache enable high efficiency in DNS translation. So that is the place attackers looking for spreading their forged DNS entry. Then all the users when accessing the same domain will use that forged DNS entry until the cache expires. After the expiring, DNS cleans its complete cache and then it go for the lookup process. At that time that forged DNS entry was removed. But if the DNS software didn’t update yet, attackers can replicate this issue and continue the redirecting of the browsing users. Another thing is that this kind of attacks is very difficult to detect. Because attackers can design malicious website which is totally same as the original websites, then the users are difficult to identify the fake and original one. In modern business world, there is huge competitions over the information, therefore DNS cache provisioning can be occurred in business websites to get the emails and customer information. So it is important to know how to avoid from this attack.
Avoiding DNS spoofing
As this is an issue occurred in mapping the domain name with the IP address, website users haven’t to more things. So main responsibility goes between website owners and the DNS providers. Following are the some techniques that can be used to avoid from the DNS spoofing.
- Use encrypted data transfer protocol: Enabling the end-to-end encryption via the SSL can decrease the impact of this issue in some extend. It allows users to verify the validation of server’s digital certificate and check whether expected owner and actual owners are same or not.
- Implementing DNS spoofing mechanisms: There are few software like XArp to detect the DNS spoofing incidents. Such kind of software applications helps to detect ARP caching situations and warn users before the transmit data.
- Use DNSSEC: DNSSEC is stand for Domain Name System Security Extensions. It can be used to determine data authenticity using digital signed DNS records. Google’s Public DNS is one example for the such kind of extension.
- In website owners side, they always have to choose a reputed DNS providers who used up to date security mechanisms for keep the security and avoid such kind of attacks.
- As a website users, we all have a responsibility to be aware of such kind of incidents and if something happens, or if you notice any discrepancies you should leave that particular sites and if you can alert the authorities of the website.
DNS spoofing is an threat incident that can be caused for both website owners and DNS providers. Main objectives of sending such kind of attack for the DNS servers is to spread malware, gain business information or for their own benefits. To avoid from such kind of trouble, all the internet users, website’s owners and DNS providers have responsibilities. Always be aware of the unintentional incidents and keep in mind to not proceed that sites anymore.
Stay Safe & Learn New Things!!!